MANETONE aveva ragione!


Egyptian calendars

An original hypothesis led me to consider the two ancient Egyptian calendars, the civil of 365 days and the religious of 365,25 days, in a different way compared to the present believes of the egyptologists. Since I had conceived unacceptable that both the calendars were inaugurated at the same moment, I investigated the possibility that the civil one had started a long time before the religious and simultaneously with a precise astronomic event, let’s say an equinox or a solstice, while the religious calendar has been inaugurated at the beginning of the pharaonic age, when the heliacal Sirius rise coincided with the summer solstice.

A long mathematical elaboration led me to a solution that considers the beginning of the more ancient calendar at the autumn equinox of the 4623 BC and the beginning of the more precise calendar in the 3761 BC.

This solution, which clearly finds common characteristics with the jewish chronology, constitutes a source of crises for the “very short” Egyptian chronologies commonly accepted, but it has the great merit to be phased with the C-14 dating of the monuments of the III and IV dynasties, which result meanly 374 years more ancient.


New chronology

Under the light of the mentioned scientific discovery, I’ve revisited the Manetho’s chronology, particularly trying to detect possible corrections at the data reported by Africano; most of them in reference to the reigns of the Intermediate Periods.

Proceeding in this way I’m proposing a new chronology of the first 18/19 dynasties based on the following characteristic points:


the year 3761 BC within the reign of Djer;


the coronation of Userkara in the year 2515 BC;


the beginning of the reign of Amenemhat I (Ammenemes) in the year 2022 BC;


the coronation of Senuserrat III (Sesostris) in the year 1886 BC;


the beginning of the reign of Amenhotep I (Amenophis) in the year 1536 BC;


the year 1471 BC within the reign of Thutmose III (Tuthmosis);


the beginning and the end of the reign of Smenkhkara in the year 1385 BC, in coincidence with biblical Exodus;


the beginning of the reign of Sethi I in the 1320 BC, in coincidence with the beginning of a new syriac cycle in the Egyptian calendars;


the years of the reigns and the durations of the dynasties almost ever corresponding to the ones reported by Manetho (in general those ones reported by Africano), with the exception of the dynasties of the first two Intermediate Periods.

The new chronology shows good agreement with the C-14 datings (the average of the differences between the supposed age of the monuments and the middle year of the reign of the relative Pharaoh is reduced from 374 to 11 years) and, furthermore, allows to explain:


the end of the II dynasty and the new religiousness of the III dynasty (the Osiris myth, the stellar religion and the pyramids), strictly in relation with a possible calamity occurred in Mesopotamia at the end of the 4th millennium BC (the biblical flood can be dated, in accordance with my studies, in the 3291 BC);


the realization of the “Palermo stone” stela during the V dynasty, in the first coincidence of the two calendars, in the 2779 BC;


the concentration of the wall tables / annals in the XVIII / XIX dynasty, in the second coincidence of the two calendars, in the 1320 BC, first year of the reign of Sethi I;


the references appearing on the “Palermo stone” about the long reigns of the gods, demigods and Shemsu Hor;


the existence of the papyrus of Turin, as summary of the “historical books” and the evidence in it of the overall time between the reign of Menes and the end of the V dynasty;


the end of the VI dynasty in relation with the mutations in the climate due to a new catastrophe in Mesopotamia in the 2395 BC, disaster that, almost for sure, caused the end of the first sumeric empire and the conquest of the Mesopotamia by Sargon from Akkad.


Origins of the Egyptian civilization

The present study of the Ancient and Middle Reign is accompanied by a speculation on the origins of the Egyptian civilization, supposed to be born from the merging of two different migrations, one from the east and one from the ancestral civilization of Atlantis.

An original view of the circular zodiac of Dendera suggested me to link some of the historical phases of the two mentioned civilizations to the icons appearing on the zodiac, supposing a temporal correspondence between historical periods and zodiacal ages.


Bible– XVIII dynasty - Exodus

The need for new reference absolute points for the Egyptian chronology led me to search possible links between Egyptian civilization and jewish world, from Abraham until the Exodus, allowing me to estimate:


the journey out of Egypt of the old Patriarch in occasion of the murdering of Amenemhet I (2022 BC);


the arrival in Egypt of Joseph and Jacob during the period of secession of the nomes of the Delta, in the XIII-XIV dynasty;


the pacific settlement of the Jewish in Egypt during the domination of the Hyksos;


the long period of slavery during the XVIII dynasty, just after the expulsion of the invaders with which the Jewish had surely formed an alliance;


Akhenaton as the Pharaoh who caused the first escape of Moses;


the biblical Exodus during the short reign of his successor, Smenkhkara.


 Egyptian religion and pyramid building

A study on a possible heritage of the religion of the motherland, allowed me to consider in an original way the symbolic meaning of the pyramid and to suppose the development of these monuments as a tribute to the gods and as a projection on earth of the Osiris myth, already “drawn” in the constellations of Orion, Auriga, Canis Maior, etc.


Giza monuments

Inspired by some Manetho notes, I conjectured that the construction of the Giza monuments had a development different from the one commonly recognized.

The realization of the pyramids during the Uenephes reign, the 4th Pharaoh of the I dynasty, according to the ptolemaic historian, made me consider the possibility that the Giza Plateau was the location of a very ancient sacerdotal centre and the “Well of the Water” the place for the veneration of the mummies of the heroes / gods Sokar, Thoth and Osiris, in a pre-dynastic age.

The unification of the Egypt had would suggest Uenephes to built a huge monumental complex at Giza, constituted by:


three little pyramids, obtained by modelling the limestone of Giza;


three hypogea beneath these pyramids, as new sepulture for the three gods, previously buried in the “Well of the Water”;


the huge statue with leonine features dedicated to Atum;


four temples dedicated to the ancient Egyptian civilization, one situated in the valley at east of Giza, a second in front of the huge statue, the third at south of the second and the last one located in front of the oriental side of the little central pyramid;


a causeway connecting the last two temples, passing over the entrance of the “Well of the Water” and hiding the holy hypogeum, not utilized anymore.

This original vision of the ancient project of Giza allows to answer to quite a lot of mysteries concerning the edifications at Giza and, particularly, to justify the strange direction of the Chefren’s causeway, superimposed to the old road of the I dynasty.

It’s still unknown if Uenephes have finished the magnificent project, but it’s pretty sure that his successor, Usaphais, had celebrated rituals inside the temple of the Sphinx.

The hypothesis that assigns the Sphinx at the I dynasty, during the reign of Uenephes (3726-3683 B.C.) or Usaphais (3683-3663 B.C.), and the possible very rainy weather of the end of II dynasty (the biblical flood is likely to be dated in the 3291 B.C.) would explain the state of decadence of a large number of monuments of the first two dynasties and solve the question of the age of the Sphinx and the erosion of the rock of the enclosure of the giant statue.


Works development at Giza

This original interpretation on origins of the Giza monuments, reflecting the Manetho’s writings, allowed me to consider a new development for the works on the plateau.

Khufu would have commenced to build a first huge pyramid on the basis of an unitary project by Imhotep, encasing the old little pyramid on the north of Giza. The old monument would be identifiable in the little hill which the egyptologists speak about, while the subterranean chamber would be the relative hypogeum.

Khufu would have build a new causeway that, for reasons of symmetry with the previous one built up during Uenephes reign, has been directed towards north-east, leading to the temple in the Valley after a further slight deviation to the north. The new temple in the valley would be erected by renovating the old one by the I dynasty.

It’s possible that Khufu have re-established the very ancient burial of the gods in the “Well of the Water” and that have make excavate a third layer below to realize its grave, close to the gods, on an island surrounded by the water of the holy Nile.

This interpretation is furthermore in accordance with the closure of the old temples ordered by Khufu, as told Erodoto, and with the Inventory Stele, perhaps copy of a much more ancient stele, stating the renovation of the ancient and damaged Sphinx by Khufu.

Khafra would have realised the second huge pyramid above the old little central one and would have renewed the temple in front of the Sphinx and the one at the end of the causeway (Valley Temple); he would have built a new mortuary temple in front of the pyramid.

Finally, Menkaura, once completed the original unitary project of Giza by realising the third huge pyramid above the third little pyramid of the I dynasty, would have erected his temples and the causeway directly toward the east.


Khufu's pyramid

The present investigation on the Ancient Egypt and the Giza pyramids tries, moreover, to solve the many doubts on the Khufu's pyramid.

A detailed analysis of the constructive characteristics of the pyramid led me to consider it as a big funeral temple, drawn to help the renaissance of the Pharaoh, which would have immersed the pyramid into a series of mathematical magics, aimed at helping his resurrection and the ascension to the heaven of his soul. The four stellar shafts were moreover built up to allow some symbolic rituals during the burying of the Pharaoh.

Accounting that the Egyptian priests have considered the undying constellations as icons of the characters of the “weighting of the heart” ceremony, I have thought a new theory out to justify the presence of the four shafts:


the northern shaft from the Queen Chamber, pointing the Ursa Minor constellation, interpreted by the Egyptians as an Anubis icon, constellation to which the ba of Khufu would be transferred for weighting of the heart;


the northern shaft of the King Chamber, pointing the polar star of that time, Alpha Draconis, star of an imaginary stellar balance and central star of the heavenly feather of Maat, from which the ba would be come back after have succeeded the trial;


the southern shaft of the King Chamber, pointing the Orion constellation to allow the ascension of the risen akh of Khufu to the constellation where it would be turned to a new divine star;


the southern shaft of the Queen Chamber, pointing Sirius, by means of which the new divine investiture would be arrived to the Khufu's successor, as a new Horus.


Unitary project of pyramids

Under the light of the stellar religion of the Ancient Egypt, I have developed the theory of Bauval on the correlation among the Giza pyramids with the stars of the Orion’s belt, considering the possibility that all the big pyramids of the Pharaohs, built from the III to the XIII dynasty, reflect the main stars of the constellations used to draw the Osiris myth.

This original theory led me to think a new Egyptian constellation, the Hawk, constituted by the stars of  Auriga, the western stars of Gemini and the stars of low magnitude of Monoceros.

The new stellar symbolism of the pyramids allows in this way to give an interpretation to the several areas chosen for the construction of the monuments, their dimensions, connected not only with the economical availability, but mostly with the choice of the part of the unitary project, solving moreover some mysteries as the Snefru’s bent pyramid and the building of the pyramids nearby the Fayum depression.



The new theories, often complex, have suggested me to develop the most difficult parts of them in five appendixes, in which has been investigated the following issues: the heliacal Sirius rise, the XII dynasty, the unphased calendars, the revised Manetho’s chronology and the stellar North Pole.


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